About three decades ago responsibility for integration policy for migrants was transferred to the communities and regions. Since then the policy has evolved in various directions. Brussels, a city, accommodates two kinds of integration policy in the same territory, one Dutch-speaking and one French-speaking. But does it have any meaning to speak of 'integration' in a city where more than half the population have their roots elsewhere? And why do we oblige newcomers to choose for a Dutch-speaking or French-speaking policy?

Ilke Adam is research professor at the Institute for European Studies (VUB).